Pathogen Damage Assesment: Kaltenborn, Germany (July 2011)

Usage Rights

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Dataset Abstract

Fungi are important drivers of ecosystem function. Pathogens however can impair productivity stability. We are interested in determining whether there is an effect of tree species diversity on regulating foliar fungal pathogens in BIOTREE site at Kaltenborn, Germany. We hypothesize that higher diversity mixture plots will have a lower incidence of pathogens and pathogen damage than monoculture plots. Leaf and needle samples from selected target trees were collected between July 19 and July 28, 2011 by hand. Target tree species include: Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Picea abies, and Pseudotsuga menziesii . Leaves and needles from two levels of the canopy were sampled. For broadleaved trees, 25 leaves from the upper and 25 from the lower part of the canopy for the north facing and south facing or east facing and west facing expositions (4 branches in total per tree). For conifers, unspecified number of shoots were visually assessed for all of the needle cohorts of the upper branch and similarly for the shoots of the lower branch for the north and south facing or east and west facing expositions (4 branches per tree). Damages were assessed based on two categories for the broadleaved trees, powdery mildew and leaf spots, and two categories for the conifers, rust and needle cast. Additionally, the number of observed leaf and branch deformations, shoot diebacks and cankers were noted for the selected branches.

Dataset Design

Two objectives in task 4.6 were achieved with the sampling of fresh leaves and needles from target trees: performing damage assessment (this workbook) and collecting leaves and needles (from the 2010 and 2011, previous and current year cohorts only) for molecular analysis (not in this workbook, but the leaves and needles were from the same selected trees described below). Leaves and needles were sampled from trees along diversity gradients. Eight trees per species were pre-selected. Leaves from broadleaved trees were selected randomly from branches; 25 leaves from the upper canopy and 25 leaves from the lower part of the canopy, where possible, for each of the north and south facing expositions or east and west facing expositions. For molecular analysis, 5 needles from conifers were selected randomly from each branch with 5 needles from the current year cohort and 5 needles from the previous year cohort from the upper canopy, and the same scheme for the lower part of the canopy for each of the north and south or east and west facing expositions. For damage assessment of needles from conifers, a visual approximation of percentage classes were noted from the available shoots.

Spatial Extent

Plantation: Kalteborn, Germany

Temporal Extent

Between July 19, 2011 and July 28, 2011

Taxonomic Extent

Leaves from Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea and needles from Picea abies and Pseudotsuga menziesii

Data Analysis

Columns A-F are explanatory variables with Column F indicating the year to which the foliage assessed appeared. Column E indicates the branch for which the data is relevant. TN = top branch, north exposition, TS = top branch, south exposition, BN = bottom branch, north exposition, BS = bottom branch, south exposition, TE = top branch, east exposition, TW = top branch, west exposition, BE = bottom branch, east exposition, and BW = bottom branch, west exposition. Columns G-P are the response variables. The values in columns G-J indicate the number of leaves with powdery mildew or leaf spots or those leaves that are healthy for the respective damage (ie, m.healthy for the number of leaves out of 25 leaves without mildew). Columns K and L indicate the percentage of shoots with rust and needle cast, respectively for the noted needle cohort (see note above in the additional comment section). Data for rust and needle cast are collected such that what is reflected is a percentage of shoots with damage based on visual averages (as opposed to out of a fixed number of shoots). There were percentage classes that were marked for these symptoms: 0, 1-5, 6-10, 11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and >76. The numbers reflected are the midpoints of each class. Columns M indicates the number of leaves with deformations, column N indicates the number of cankers, column O indicates the number of shoots with dieback, and column P indicates the number of shoots with deformations for the respective branch of the respective tree.

Data columns available in the raw data part of this dataset

plot
Plot Id
Data group: Kaltenborn plot id
Values
10
13
1
12
11
tree.id
Tree id
Data group: Tree id
Values
K10_461
K10_460
K10_463
K10_464
K10_466
richness
Species richness
Data group: Species richness
Keywords: diversity
Values
1
4
3
2
species
Tree species
Data group: Tree species
Values
Fagus sylvatica
Quercus petraea
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Picea abies
branch
Branch position
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Values
BE
BS
TE
BN
BW
cohort
Foliage cohort
Data group: Cohort
Values
2008
2006
2004
2005
2007
mildew
leaves with powdery mildew
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, powdery mildew
Values
1
?
10
12
0
m.healthy
Number of healthy leaves
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
12
0
10
11
1
spots
leaves with leaf spots
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, leaf spots
Values
1
10
?
11
0
s.healthy
Number of healthy leaves
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
12
1
11
0
10
rust
percentage of shoots with rust
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, rust
Values
NA
cast
Percentage of shoots with needle cast
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, needle cast
Values
38
63
18
0
3
lf.def
number of leaves with deformations
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
12
11
1
0
10
canker
number of cankers
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
11
12
1
0
10
dback
number of shoot dieback
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
1
10
12
11
0
br.def
number of branch deformations
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
3
0
2
4
1