Pathogen Damage Assesment: Satakunta, Finland (August 2011)

Usage Rights

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Dataset Abstract

Fungi are important drivers of ecosystem function. Pathogens however can impair productivity stability. We are interested in determining whether there is an effect of tree species diversity on regulating foliar fungal pathogens in Satakunta, Finland. We hypothesize that higher diversity mixture plots will have a lower incidence of pathogens and pathogen damage than monoculture plots. Leaf and needle samples from selected target trees were collected between August 12 and August 15, 2011 with extension loopers. Target tree species include: Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Alnus glutinosa and Larix siberica. Leaves from two levels of the canopy were sampled; 25 from the upper and 25 from the lower part of the canopy for the north facing and south facing expositions (4 branches in total per tree). For conifers, unspecified number of shoots were sampled for each of the first two years' cohorts for the upper branch and similarly for the lower branch for the north facing and south facing expositions (4 branches per tree, 8 cohorts in total). Damages were assessed based on two categories, powdery mildew and leaf spots for the broadleaved trees and two categories for the conifers, rust and needle cast. Additionally, the number of observed leaf and branch deformations, shoot diebacks and cankers were noted for the cut portions of branches.

Dataset Design

Two objectives in task 4.6 were achieved with the sampling of fresh leaves and needles from target trees: performing damage assessment (this workbook) and collecting leaves and needles (from the 2010 and 2011, previous and current year cohorts only) for molecular analysis (not in this workbook, but the leaves and needles were from the same selected trees described below) Leaves and needles were sampled from trees along a tree species diversity gradient. Five trees per species were pre-selected. Leaves from broadleaved trees were selected randomly from cut branches; 25 leaves from the upper canopy and 25 leaves from the lower part of the canopy, where possible, for each of the north and south facing expositions. For molecular analysis, needles from conifers were selected randomly from cut branches with 5 shoots from the current year cohort and 5 shoots from the previous year cohort from the upper canopy, and the same scheme for the lower part of the canopy for each of the north and south facing expositions. For damage assessment of needles from conifers, a visual approximation of percentage classes were noted from the available shoots.

Spatial Extent

Plantation: Satakunta, Finland

Temporal Extent

Between August 12, 2011 and August 15, 2011

Taxonomic Extent

Leaves from Betula pendula and Alnus glutinosa, and needles from Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Larix siberica

Data Analysis

Columns A-F are explanatory variables with Column F indicating the year to which the foliage assessed appeared. Column E indicates the branch for which the data is relevant. TN = top branch, north exposition, TS = top branch, south exposition, BN = bottom branch, north exposition, and BS = bottom branch, south exposition. Columns G-P are the response variables. The values in columns G-J indicate the number of leaves with powdery mildew or leaf spots or those leaves that are healthy. Column J indicates the total number of leaves assessed. Columns K and L indicate the percentage of shoots with rust and needle cast, respectively for the noted needle cohort. Data for rust and needle cast are collected such that what is reflected is a percentage of shoots with damage based on visual averages (as opposed to out of a fixed number of shoots). There were percentage classes that were marked for these symptoms: 0, 1-5, 6-10, 11-25, 26-50, 51-75, and >76. The numbers reflected are the midpoints of each class. Columns M indicates the number of leaves with deformations, column N indicates the number of cankers, column O indicates the number of shoots with dieback, and column P indicates the number of shoots with deformations for the respective branch of the respective tree.

Data columns available in the raw data part of this dataset

plot
Plot Id
Data group: Satakunta Plot Id
Values
15
11
1
17
16
tree.id
Tree id
Data group: Tree id
Values
1_0507
1_0710
1_0604
1_0704
1_0506
richness
Species richness
Data group: Species richness
Keywords: diversity
Values
2
5
3
1
species
Tree species
Data group: Tree species
Values
Betula pendula
Picea abies
Pinus sylvestris
Larix sibirica
Alnus glutinosa
branch
Branch position
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Values
TS
BN
BS
TN
cohort
Foliage cohort
Data group: Cohort
Values
2010
2011
mildew
number of leaves with powdery mildew
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, powdery mildew
Values
NA
spots
number of leaves with leaf spots
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, leaf spots
Values
10
13
11
1
12
healthy
Number of healthy leaves
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
11
13
10
0
1
total
Total number of leaves sampled
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
13
12
11
10
14
rust
Percentage of shoots with rust
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, rust
Values
3
NA
18
8
0
cast
Percentage of shoots with needle cast
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, needle cast
Values
3
63
0
18
38
lf.def
number of leaves with deformations
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
2
0
NA
canker
number of cankers
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
13
NA
0
1
dback
number of shoot dieback
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
2
0
4
3
1
br.def
number of branch deformations
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
0
1
NA