Pathogen Damage Assessment: Spain (June 2013)

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Dataset Abstract

Fungi are important drivers of ecosystem function. Pathogens however can impair productivity stability. We are interested in determining whether there is an effect of tree species diversity on regulating foliar fungal pathogens in Alto Tajo, Spain. We hypothesize that higher diversity mixture plots will have a lower incidence of pathogens and pathogen damage than monoculture plots. Leaf samples from selected target trees were collected between June 13 and June 21, 2013 with extension loopers. Target tree species include: Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris. Leaves from two levels of the canopy were sampled; 30 from the sun-exposed upper and 30 from the lower part of the canopy, both branches from the south exposition. For conifers, 10 shoots were sampled for each of the first two years' cohorts (20 shoots total) for the upper branch and similarly for the lower branch from the south exposition. Damages were assessed based on two categories, powdery mildew and leaf spots for the broadleaved trees and two categories for the conifers, rust and needle cast.

Dataset Design

Two objectives in task 4.6 were achieved with the sampling of fresh leaves and needles from target trees: performing damage assessment (this workbook) and collecting leaves and needles (from the 2013, current year cohort and from the 2012, previous year cohort) for molecular analysis (not in this workbook, but the leaves and needles were from the same selected trees described below) Leaves and needles were sampled from trees along gradients like diversity. From provided tree size data, the trees sorted based on DBH. The 12 largest trees based on DBH were selected from monoculture plots and 6 trees for the those trees in mixture plots. From these, 6 trees were randomly selected (Excel random number generator) in the monoculture plots and 3 trees were selected from mixture plots. Sometimes the pre-selected tree needed to be changed in the field. Leaves from broadleaved trees were selected randomly from cut branches; 30 leaves from the sun-exposed upper canopy and 30 leaves from the lower part of the canopy. Needles from conifers were selected randomly from cut branches with 10 shoots from the current year cohort and 10 shoots from the previous year cohort from the sun-exposed upper canopy, and the same scheme for the lower part of the canopy.

Spatial Extent

Exploratory Region: Spain

Temporal Extent

Between June 13, 2013 and June 21, 2013

Taxonomic Extent

Leaves from Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea and needles from Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris

Measurement Circumstances

Are there circumstances that explain the precision of your measurements? Could it be that a sandstorm destroyed part of the plots in a given year?

The current year needles of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra had not sufficiently flushed to evaluate pathogen damage. Quercus faginea leaves had not sufficiently flushed to evaluate pathogen damage. Quercus ilex leaves are a combination of current year (majority) and previous year cohorts, most of which had already fallen off.

Data Analysis

Columns A-D provide the unique identification for each focal tree.
Column E indicates the branch from which the leaves were sampled for that particular focal tree.
Columns F-H indicate the number of leaves with powdery mildew (mildew), the number of leaves without powdery mildew (m.healthy), and the total number of leaves assessed for powdery mildew (m.total), respectively.
Columns I-K indicate the number of leaves with leaf spots (spots), the number of leaves without leaf spots (s.healthy), and the total number of leaves assessed for leaf spots (s.total), which are the same leaves assessed for powdery mildew, respectively.
Columns L and M indicate the number of shoots with rust (rust.current) and needle cast (cast.current), respectively for the current year needles (i.e. from 2013).
Columns N and O indicate the number of healthy shoots (healthy.current) and total number of shoots sampled (ndl.tot.current) for that cohort of shoots, respectively.
Columns P-S have the same notes the same as columns L-O, except for data from the previous year needle cohorts (indicated with ".prev") (i.e. from 2012).
Column T indicates the overall number of healthy leaves or healthy current year shoots.
Column U indicates the total number of leaves or current year shoots sampled.

Data columns available in the raw data part of this dataset

plot
Plot Id
Data group: Exploratory plot id
Values
SPA03
SPA04
SPA05
SPA01
SPA02
tree
Tree number
Data group: Tree number
Values
10a
102
10c
10
1
tree.id
Tree id
Data group: Tree id
Values
SPA01_18
SPA01_13
SPA01_21
SPA01_14
SPA01_11
species
Tree species
Data group: Tree species code
Values
PINSYL
QUEILE
PINNIG
QUEFAG
branch
Branch position
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Values
B
T
mildew
Number of leaves with powdery mildew
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, powdery mildew
Values
NA
0
m.healthy
Number of healthy leaves with regards to mildew
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, powdery mildew
Values
NA
30
m.total
Total number of leaves sampled with regards to mildew
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, powdery mildew
Values
NA
30
spots
Number of leaves with leaf spots
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, leaf spots
Values
12
0
10
1
11
s.healthy
Number of healthy leaves with regards to spots
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, leaf spots
Values
19
17
18
20
13
s.total
Total number of leaves sampled with regards to spots
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, leaf spots
Values
NA
30
rust.current
Number of shoots with rust from the current year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, rust
Values
0
NA
cast.current
Number of shoots with needle cast from the current year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, needle cast
Values
1
0
NA
healthy.current
Number of healthy shoots from the current year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
NA
9
8
10
6
ndl.tot.current
Total number of shoots assessed for the current year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
8
9
6
NA
10
rust.prev
Number of shoots with rust from the previous year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, rust
Values
0
NA
cast.prev
Number of shoots with needle cast from the previous year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen, needle cast
Values
4
3
2
0
1
healthy.prev
Number of healthy shoots from the previous year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
4
6
10
7
5
ndl.tot.prev
Total number of shoots assessed for the previous year needle cohort
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
6
9
10
NA
8
healthy.foliage
Overall number of healthy leaves or healty current year shoots
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
18
13
10
17
19
total.foliage
Total number of leaves or current year shoots sampled
Data group: Pathogen assessment
Keywords: pathogen
Values
10
30
9
6
8